1 Chronicles: God rules History

The Families of Israel

An EasyEnglish Bible Version and Commentary (2800 word vocabulary) on 1 Chronicles chapters 1 to 9


Ian Mackervoy

This commentary has been through Advanced Checking.

Words in boxes are from the Bible.

A word list at the end explains words with a *star by them.


About this book

The Books of 1 Chronicles and 2 Chronicles record the history of the *Israelites. These books are about the same period of time as the Books of 2 Samuel, 1 Kings and 2 Kings.

1 Chronicles begins with a list of the families of the *Israelites. Then it continues with an account of David’s rule over the united *kingdom called Israel. 2 Chronicles begins with an account of Solomon’s rule. After Solomon’s death, the *kingdom was divided. The author does not include much of the history of the kings in the northern part of Israel. All the northern kings were evil men who were not loyal to God. Instead, the author concentrates on the southern kings, who ruled the region called Judah. Some of them were loyal to God, but there were also many evil kings in Judah. Their evil behaviour brought about the end of that *kingdom.

However, the Books of 1 Chronicles and 2 Chronicles are not just a political history. They are also a history of the people’s religion. They record how the people *worshipped God. And especially, the books concentrate on the *worship that happened at the *temple in Jerusalem.

The title

In our Bibles, we have 1 Chronicles and 2 Chronicles. They were one book for a long time until there was a translation into the language called Greek. (The name of that translation is the Septuagint.) That was early in the second century *BC. They split the book into two because the length of it would more easily fit on two *scrolls. The old *Hebrew name for the one book was ‘the books of events’ or ‘diaries’. The name of the two books in the Greek language was ‘things that the other books left out.’ Several events here are not in the other history books. That may be the reason for the *Hebrew and Greek names. The other history books are the Books of Samuel and Kings.

A man whose name was Jerome suggested the name Chronicles for the two books. ‘Chronicles’ means a ‘list of events’. Jerome translated the Bible into the language called Latin in the 4th century AD. (‘AD’ means ‘after Christ was born’.) In time, the name of the books became Chronicles.

The date

The last event in the second book is when King Cyrus let the *Jews return to their land (2 Chronicles 36:22-23). The *Jews had been in *exile in Babylon for 70 years. Cyrus made that decision in 538 *BC. The list of the people in the first book includes Zerubbabel (1 Chronicles 3:17-21). He led the *Jews back to *Israel soon after the decision of Cyrus. The book names two of his grandsons, Pelatiah and Jeshaiah. This fact brings the earliest date of the books to about 500 *BC.

The writer mentions the gifts that the leaders gave for the work of the *temple (1 Chronicles 29:7). He talks about gold *darics. The *daric was a coin that did not exist before 515 *BC. So, the date of this book is some time after that date.

The *Jews completed the *Old Testament when Artaxerxes was King of Persia. He died in 424 *BC. As Chronicles was in that *Old Testament, its date is clearly before 424 *BC. The Book of Chronicles usually appears as the last book in the *Hebrew *Old Testament. (The books have a different order in *Hebrew Bibles.)

The Chronicles are like the works of Ezra in style and in words. It is most likely that they are from the same period. Ezra wrote in the 5th century *BC.

The writer

We do not know who wrote the Chronicles. The style and the arrangement of the books show that there was a single author.

*Jewish tradition says that Ezra wrote Chronicles. He wrote the Book of Ezra as well. Many Christian experts also believe that Ezra wrote the Chronicles. Some of these experts say that Ezra received help from the *prophets Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.

However, other experts think that Ezra was not the author of the Chronicles. They think that the author was someone unknown, but a lot like Ezra. He shared some interests with Ezra but he had his own distinct (different) interests as well. And he lived during the same period of history as Ezra did.

The purposes

The Books of Chronicles are history books. But the books are not just about history. The writer seems to be a *Levite. He writes about such things as the *temple, prayer and the *worship of God. He tries to explain what *Israel’s history means. He shows how God was in control of that history.

The writer gives lists of names. He starts with Adam, the first man. Then he makes a list of those people who came from Noah’s family. From them came the nations that the *Jews knew about. He then tells about Jacob, who was called *Israel. He was the *ancestor of all the *Jews. From then on, he gives only lists of all the *tribes of *Israel. But to him the most important are those who came from Judah. The kings came from the *tribe of Judah. Later the author gives lists of people who helped in the *worship of God, and soldiers in David’s army. This is to show how important these jobs were.

The *Israelites had come back to their country after 70 years in *exile. So, the writer wants them to know that all *Israelites are God’s people. He considers *Israel to be the *LORD’s *kingdom. David and Solomon were kings over the *LORD’s *kingdom. Such ideas would give hope to the people who had just returned from *exile. *Israel’s *kingdom would be safe because God was looking after it. In time, God would establish it again.

*Israelites are people who belong to the family of *Israel. The people needed to know that they did belong to *Israel. So, the writer gives the history of the families of *Israel. He starts with Adam and he shows the families of the 12 *tribes up to the *exile. To do this, he used several books that are now in the Bible. And he also used many other ancient records. None of these other records exists now.

One of the most important subjects in these books is the *temple in Jerusalem. The writer shows how David organised the staff to maintain the *temple. He set up the teams of the priests and *Levites who would lead the *worship in the *temple. God did not let David build the *temple. But David prepared the materials for his son to build it. In 2 Chronicles, we read how Solomon built the *temple.

The structure of 1 Chronicles

Adam to Esau

1 Chronicles 1:1-54

Adam to Noah

1 Chronicles 1:1-3

Noah’s family

1 Chronicles 1:4-23

Shem to Abraham

1 Chronicles 1:24-27


1 Chronicles 1:28-34

Esau and Edom

1 Chronicles 1:35-54

The *tribes of *Israel

1 Chronicles 2:1-8:40

The sons of *Israel

1 Chronicles 2:1-2

The *tribe of Judah

1 Chronicles 2:3-4:23

The *tribe of Simeon

1 Chronicles 4:24-43

The *tribe of Reuben

1 Chronicles 5:1-10

The *tribe of Gad

1 Chronicles 5:11-22

The half *tribe of Manasseh east of the river

1 Chronicles 5:23-26

The *tribe of Levi

1 Chronicles 6:1-81

The *tribe of Issachar

1 Chronicles 7:1-5

The *tribe of Benjamin

1 Chronicles 7:6-12

The *tribe of Naphtali

1 Chronicles 7:13

The western half *tribe of Manasseh

1 Chronicles 7:14-19

The *tribe of Ephraim

1 Chronicles 7:20-29

The *tribe of Asher

1 Chronicles 7:30-40

Benjamin to Saul

1 Chronicles 8:1-40

People in Jerusalem

1 Chronicles 9:1-34

The people who lived in Jerusalem

1 Chronicles 9:1-9

The families of the priests

1 Chronicles 9:10-13

The families of the *Levites

1 Chronicles 9:14-34

Saul’s family

1 Chronicles 9:35-44

David becomes king

1 Chronicles 10:1-12:40

The end of Saul’s family

1 Chronicles 10:1-14

All *Israel accepts David as king

1 Chronicles 11:1-12:40

David brings the *ark to Jerusalem

1 Chronicles 13:1-16:43

The first part of the journey

1 Chronicles 13:1-14

The fame of David

1 Chronicles 14:1-17

The *ark comes to Jerusalem

1 Chronicles 15:1-29

The people *worship and praise the *LORD

1 Chronicles 16:1-43

God’s special promise to David

1 Chronicles 17:1-27

The *LORD speaks to David

1 Chronicles 17:1-15

David prays

1 Chronicles 17:16-27

David’s battles

1 Chronicles 18:1-20:8

The *kingdom becomes larger

1 Chronicles 18:1-13

David’s organisation

1 Chronicles 18:14-17

Defeat of the nation called Ammon

1 Chronicles 19:1-20:3

Battles against the *Philistines

1 Chronicles 20:4-8

David prepares for the construction of the *temple

1 Chronicles 21:1-29:30

David’s *sin and God’s goodness

1 Chronicles 21:1-30

David prepares for the *temple

1 Chronicles 22:1-19

Organisation of the *Levites

1 Chronicles 23:1-26:32

Organisation of other leaders

1 Chronicles 27:1-34

Final preparations for the *temple

1 Chronicles 28:1-29:20

Solomon becomes king and the death of David

1 Chronicles 29:21-30

Adam to Esau – 1 Chronicles 1:1-54

Adam to Noah – 1 Chronicles 1:1-3

v1 Adam was the father of Seth. Seth was the father of Enosh. Enosh was the father of Kenan. v2 Kenan was the father of Mahalalel. Mahalalel was the father of Jared. Jared was the father of Enoch. v3 Enoch was the father of Methuselah. Methuselah was the father of Lamech. And Lamech was the father of Noah.

Verses 1-3 The writer sets out to show that the *exiles are God’s people, *Israel. The people who had come back from *exile needed to find their origins. They needed to connect again with their past as the nation called *Israel. To assist them in this the writer records the history of their families. He starts at the beginning with Adam, the first man. He makes a list of the 10 names from Adam to Noah. It is the same as the list in Genesis chapter 5.

The list is of the *ancestors of *Israel. The list does not mention the other sons and their families. They all died in the flood. So, Noah was the *ancestor of all people.

Noah’s family – 1 Chronicles 1:4-23

v4 The sons of Noah were Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

v5 Japheth’s sons were Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. v6 Gomer’s sons were Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. v7 Javan’s sons were Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Rodanim.

v8 Ham’s sons were Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan. v9 Cush’s sons were Seba, Havilah, Sabta, Raamah, and Sabteca. Raamah’s sons were Sheba and Dedan. v10 Cush was the father of Nimrod. Nimrod grew up to become a very powerful person in this world. v11-12 Mizraim was the *ancestor of the people from these nations: the Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim and Caphtorim. The *Philistines came from Casluhim.

v13-16 Canaan’s first child was Sidon. And Canaan was the *ancestor of the people from these nations: the Hittites, *Jebusites, Amorites, Girgashites, Hivites, Arkites, Sinites, Arvadites, Zemarites, and Hamathites.

v17 Shem’s sons were Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram. Aram’s sons were Uz, Hul, Gether, and Meshech. v18 Arphaxad was the father of Shelah. Shelah was the father of Eber. v19 Eber had two sons. The name of one son was Peleg. He had this name because of an event during his life. While he was alive, God divided the people. Peleg’s brother was Joktan. v20-23 Joktan was the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, Obal, Abimael, Sheba, Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab. All these men were Joktan’s sons.

Verse 4 The verses from 4 to 23 show the same names as are in Genesis chapter 10.

Here are the sons of Noah in the order of their ages. Shem was the first, then Ham; and Japheth was the youngest. The three sons of Noah are here because they were the start of the new world.

Noah, his sons and their wives were the only people who were alive after the flood.

Verses 5-7 We have the family of the youngest son first. The writer wants to follow the family of Shem. Abraham and *Israel came from the family of Shem. So, he puts Shem as the last of the three.

From the 7 sons of Japheth came the people in Europe and northern Asia.

Verse 8 The people in Africa and the south-west of Asia come from the 4 sons of Ham.

Verses 9-10 Cush had 5 sons. They each were the start of separate *clans. These *clans moved to the east of the Red Sea. They spread across southern Arabia and in the valley of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates. It is not clear whether Nimrod was a 6th son of Cush. But he was from the family of Cush. He became the first powerful man since the flood. He was the ruler of Babylon and Assyria.

Verses 11-16 Mizraim was a son of Ham. From the family of Mizraim there came the *Philistines. Later the *Philistines came to live in the country called Canaan. There they were a frequent enemy of the *Israelites.

Another son of Ham was Canaan. From him there came several nations. These nations were the neighbours of *Israel and they often fought against *Israel.

The Amorites were a *clan that spread through the country called Canaan. Later they became a nation to the north of Israel. The Girgashites were a *clan in the country called Canaan. The Hivites were another *clan in the country called Canaan. The Arkites lived in the city called Arka that was in the country called Syria. We do not know anything about the Sinites. The Arvadites were a *clan that went to live on the island called Arvad. This island was near the coast of the country called Syria. The Zemarites were another *clan in the country called Canaan. The Hamathites were a *clan that lived near the northern boundary of Israel. Hamath was their main city.

Verses 17-23 From the 5 sons of Shem came various nations that are in the same region as Israel. Elam went to the north of the bay called the Persian Gulf. The family of Aram became Syria. Lud was in the centre of the country that we call Turkey.

Eber was the *ancestor of Abraham. And he was the *ancestor of a number of other people. These people were called the Habiru or Apiru. The word *Hebrew may have come from the name Eber or from the word Habiru.

One of the sons of Eber was Peleg. Peleg means ‘separated’. He had this name because, during his life, God separated the people. This refers to what happened at Babel (Genesis 11:1-9). Until this time, all of the world’s people spoke one language. But they became too proud. They tried to build up to the sky. But God would not allow them to do it. God confused their language so that they could not understand each other. He scattered them all over the earth.

Shem to Abraham – 1 Chronicles 1:24-27

v24-26 Abram’s *ancestors included Shem, Arphaxad, Shelah, Eber, Peleg, Reu, Serug, Nahor, and Terah. v27 God changed Abram’s name to Abraham.

Verses 24-27 The list of names from Shem to Abram comes from Genesis 11:10-26. God changed Abram’s name to Abraham (Genesis 17:5). Until that time, Abram and his wife Sarai had no children. Sarai was too old to have children and Abram was 99 years old. But God promised them a son. God changed their names. ‘Abraham’ means ‘father of a crowd.’ His wife’s name became Sarah.

Abraham – 1 Chronicles 1:28-34

v28 Abraham’s sons were Isaac and Ishmael. v29-31 These were the sons of Isaac and Ishmael. Ishmael’s first son was Nebaioth. His other sons were Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadad, Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. These men were Ishmael’s sons. v32 The sons of Keturah, Abraham’s slave woman, were Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah. Jokshan’s sons were Sheba and Dedan. v33 Midian’s sons were Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abida, and Eldaah. All these men were *descendants of Keturah.

v34 Abraham was the father of Isaac. And Isaac’s sons were Esau and *Israel.

Verses 28-34 Abraham had sons from three women. He had the first son Ishmael by Hagar. Hagar was not his wife. She was the servant of Sarah. Then he had Isaac by his wife Sarah. She was his principal wife. Abraham married a slave girl Keturah as a secondary wife. It was the custom to have a principal wife. People did not consider that a secondary wife had an equal rank with other wives. Keturah gave him 6 sons.

The writer tells us about the children of Hagar and Keturah first. Then he gives the family of Isaac because he was the *ancestor of *Israel. Isaac had two sons, Esau and Jacob. Later the *LORD gave to Jacob the new name of *Israel (Genesis 32:28). The Chronicles always call him *Israel (except in 1 Chronicles chapter 16).

The *Jews came from Isaac. The Arab nations came from Ishmael and Keturah.

Esau and Edom – 1 Chronicles 1:35-54

v35 Esau’s sons were Eliphaz, Reuel, Jeush, Jalam, and Korah. v36 Eliphaz’s sons were Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, Kenaz, Timna, and Amalek. v37 Reuel’s sons were Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah.

v38 Seir’s sons were Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. v39 Lotan’s sons were Hori and Homam. Lotan’s sister was Timna. v40 Shobal’s sons were Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam. Zibeon’s sons were Aiah and Anah. v41 Anah’s son was Dishon. Dishon’s sons were Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Keran. v42 Ezer’s sons were Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan. Dishan’s sons were Uz and Aran.

v43 These kings ruled in Edom before there were kings in *Israel. Bela son of Beor was king of Edom. His city was Dinhabah. v44 When Bela died, Jobab son of Zerah became king. He was from Bozrah. v45 When Jobab died, Husham became king. He was from the country called Teman.

v46 When Husham died, Hadad son of Bedad became king. His city was Avith. Hadad defeated Midian in the country called Moab. v47 When Hadad died, Samlah became king. He was from Masrekah. v48 When Samlah died, Shaul became king. He was from Rehoboth by the river. v49 When Shaul died, Baal-Hanan son of Acbor became king. v50 When Baal-Hanan died, Hadad became king. His city was Pau. Hadad’s wife was Mehetabel, and she was the daughter of Matred. Matred was the daughter of Me-Zahab. v51-54 Hadad died. The leaders of the families of Edom were Timna, Alvah, Jetheth, Oholibamah, Elah, Pinon, Kenaz, Teman, Mibzar, Magdiel, and Iram. These men were the leaders of Edom.

Verses 35-42 Esau had 5 sons. These sons in turn had their own sons. Esau took his family and he went to live in the hill country called Seir. Seir was to the east of the valley called Arabah, east of the Dead Sea. Seir was the *ancestor of the people who lived there. Esau had the name Edom (Genesis 25:30). So, the families of Esau and Seir became the nation called Edom.

Verses 43-54 The first king in *Israel was Saul. He did not rule until *BC 971. But the nation called Edom had kings from about 13th century *BC. This is a list of some of those kings.

The *tribes of *Israel – 1 Chronicles 2:1-8:40

The sons of *Israel – 1 Chronicles 2:1-2

v1-2 The sons of *Israel were Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Dan, Joseph, Benjamin, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher.

Verses 1-2 Here is a list of the 12 sons of *Israel. From them came the 12 *tribes of *Israel. Leah was the mother of the first 6 sons in this list (Reuben to Zebulun). They are in the order of their births. The mother of Joseph and Benjamin was Rachel. Bilhah was the mother of Dan and Naphtali. And Zilpah was the mother of Gad and Asher.

The *tribe of Judah – 1 Chronicles 2:3-4:23

Judah to Caleb – 1 Chronicles 2:3-9

v3 Judah’s sons were Er, Onan, and Shelah. A woman from Canaan, the daughter of Shua, was their mother. Judah’s first son, Er, did things that the *LORD considered to be wicked. Therefore, the *LORD killed him. v4 Judah had sex with his son’s widow Tamar. They had two sons, Perez and Zerah. So, Judah was the father of 5 sons.

v5 Perez’s sons were Hezron and Hamul. v6 Zerah had 5 sons. They were Zimri, Ethan, Heman, Calcol, and Darda. v7 Carmi’s son was Achar. Achar caused *disaster for *Israel. He took things for himself that belonged to God. v8 Ethan’s son was Azariah. v9 Hezron’s sons were Jerahmeel, Ram, and Caleb.

Verses 3-4 Judah married a woman who was from Canaan. She was the daughter of Shua. Judah and his wife had three sons. Judah arranged the marriage of his son Er to Tamar. But Er was so wicked that the *LORD killed him. The custom was that a brother of the dead husband should try to have children by the widow. Onan would not have children for his brother. The *LORD also killed Onan because he was a wicked man. Judah promised to give Shelah to Tamar when he was older. But he did not do it. So, Tamar pretended to be a *prostitute and Judah had sex with her. The result of this was that Judah and Tamar had two boys (see Genesis chapter 38). These boys were Perez and Zerah.

Canaan was the nation that was in the country before Israel.

Verses 5-6 Perez had two sons. Zerah had 5 sons. Carmi came from the family of Zerah. He was a son of Zimri.

Verse 7 The *Israelites expected to take Ai town in battle. But when they attacked the town, the people from Ai defeated them. They asked the *LORD why they had lost the battle. They lost because of Achar. He had taken things for himself after a previous battle. His *sin brought about this *disaster for *Israel. This story is in Joshua chapter 7 (where Achar is called Achan). The word ‘Achar’ means ‘trouble’.

Verse 9 The rest of this chapter is about the families of these three sons (Jerahmeel, Ram, and Caleb).

The family of Ram – 1 Chronicles 2:10-17

v10 Ram was Amminadab’s father. And Amminadab was the father of Nahshon. Nahshon was the leader of the *tribe of Judah. v11 Nahshon was the father of Salmon. Salmon was the father of Boaz. v12 Boaz was the father of Obed, and Obed was the father of Jesse. v13 Jesse’s first son was Eliab. His second son was Abinadab. His third son was Shimea. v14 His 4th son was Nethanel. His 5th son was Raddai. v15 His 6th son was Ozem, and his 7th son was David. v16 Their sisters were Zeruiah and Abigail. Zeruiah’s three sons were Abishai, Joab, and Asahel. v17 Abigail was the mother of Amasa, and his father was Jether, a *descendant of Ishmael.

Verse 10 It seems that this is not a complete list of the family from Ram to David. There was about 300 years between Ram and Nahshon. In these family lists, ‘father’ can mean ‘*ancestor’. And ‘son’ can mean ‘*descendant’. Nahshon was the leader in the *tribe of Judah at the time of Moses (Numbers 1:7).

Verse 11 Salmon (the son of Nahshon) married Rahab after the battle at Jericho. She had been a *prostitute in Jericho. But she helped the *Israelites and she believed in God (Joshua chapter 2). She was the mother of Boaz. Because of God’s great kindness, a former *prostitute became an *ancestor of the *Lord Jesus (Matthew 1:5 and Luke 4:32).

Verse 12 Boaz married Ruth. She was a foreign woman who had formerly been married to an *Israelite. Her first husband had died and she came to *Israel with her husband’s mother. You can read more about her in the Book of Ruth. Boaz and Ruth had a son called Jesse.

Verses 13-15 Jesse had 8 sons. Here we have a record of 7 sons. And the 7th son of Jesse was David. But David was the youngest of 8 sons (1 Samuel 16:10; 1 Samuel 17:12). We do not know why the writer left out one son. Perhaps this son died before he became an adult. Or perhaps the missing son did not have the same mother as the other 7.

Verses 16-17 Zeruiah and Abigail were sisters of David. But they were the daughters of Nahash (2 Samuel 17:25). There are three possible answers to this problem. There is a *Jewish tradition that Nahash and Jesse were the same person. That seems to be the best solution. It could be that this Nahash was the wife of Jesse. Then Jesse would be the father of these girls. Another idea is that Jesse married the wife of Nahash. So, his sons and the girls had the same mother.

The three sons of Zeruiah all became famous soldiers in David’s army. Amasa was the leader of Absalom’s army (2 Samuel 17:25). Later David would have made him a leader in his army. But Joab killed Amasa (2 Samuel 20:10).

The family of Caleb – 1 Chronicles 2:18-24

v18 Caleb, a son of Hezron, had children by his wife Azubah and by Jerioth. Caleb and Azubah’s sons were Jesher, Shobab, and Ardon. v19 When Azubah died, Caleb married Ephrath. They had a son called Hur. v20 Hur was the father of Uri. Uri was the father of Bezalel.

v21 Later, when Hezron was 60 years old, he married the daughter of Makir. Makir was Gilead’s father. Hezron had sex with Makir’s daughter, and she had a son called Segub. v22 Segub was the father of Jair. Jair ruled 23 towns in the region called Gilead. v23 (But Geshur and Aram took the towns of Jair. Also, they took Kenath and the small towns round it. They took control of a total of 60 towns.) All these people were *descendants of Makir, the father of Gilead.

v24 After Hezron died in Caleb Ephrathah, his wife Abijah had his son, called Ashhur. Ashhur was the father of Tekoa.

Verses 18-20 Hezron’s son Caleb is not the same as the Caleb who was with Moses. (That Caleb was the son of Jephunneh – Numbers 13:6.) This list is not a complete one of the family from Caleb to Bezalel. There is an interval of about 300 years between Hur and Uri. This is not the same Hur that held up the hands of Moses (Exodus 17:10).

Bezalel lived at the same time as Caleb the son of Jephunneh. They came out of Egypt with Moses. Bezalel did much of the work to make the *LORD’s tent in the desert (Exodus 31:2-5; 35:30-33; and 36:1).

Verses 21-22 Makir was Gilead’s father. The family of Gilead lived in the region called Gilead. Hezron was from the *tribe of Judah. But Jair was from the family of Makir by the daughter of Makir. Jair ruled 23 towns in Gilead in the time of Moses (Numbers 32:41).

Verse 23 The 60 towns were Jair’s 23 plus 37 more at Kenath. The families of Geshur and Aram were called the Arameans. Probably, they fought for and took these 60 towns in the 9th century *BC. (Moses and Jair lived in the 15th century *BC.)

Verse 24 Abijah gave birth to Asshur after the death of her husband Hezron.

The family of Jerahmeel – 1 Chronicles 2:25-41

v25 Hezron’s first son was Jerahmeel. Jerahmeel’s sons were Ram, Bunah, Oren, Ozem, and Ahijah. Ram was Jerahmeel’s first son. v26 Jerahmeel had another wife, called Atarah. She was the mother of Onam. v27 Jerahmeel’s first son, Ram, had sons. They were Maaz, Jamin, and Eker. v28 Onam’s sons were Shammai and Jada. Shammai’s sons were Nadab and Abishur. v29 Abishur’s wife was Abihail, and their sons were Ahban and Molid. v30 Nadab’s sons were Seled and Appaim. Seled died. He had no children. v31 Appaim’s son was Ishi, who became the father of Sheshan. Sheshan was the father of Ahlai. v32 Jada was Shammai’s brother. Jada’s sons were Jether and Jonathan. Jether died but he had no children. v33 Jonathan’s sons were Peleth and Zaza. These men were Jerahmeel’s *descendants. v34 Sheshan did not have any sons. He only had daughters. He had a servant from Egypt called Jarha. v35 Sheshan let his daughter marry his servant Jarha. She had a son called Attai. v36 Attai was the father of Nathan. Nathan was the father of Zabad. v37 Zabad was the father of Ephlal. Ephlal was the father of Obed. v38 Obed was the father of Jehu. Jehu was the father of Azariah. v39 Azariah was the father of Helez. Helez was the father of Eleasah. v40 Eleasah was the father of Sismai. Sismai was the father of Shallum. v41 Shallum was the father of Jekamiah, and Jekamiah was the father of Elishama.

Verses 25-40 Jerahmeel was the first son of Hezron. His *descendants lived in the Negev to the south of Judah.

Verse 41 Elishama lived about 1100 *BC. That is in the time of Jesse, who was the father of David.

More of Caleb’s family – 1 Chronicles 2:42-55

v42 Caleb was Jerahmeel’s brother. Caleb’s first son was Mesha. Mesha was the father of Ziph, and his son Mareshah was the father of Hebron. v43 Hebron’s sons were Korah, Tappuah, Rekem, and Shema. v44 Shema was the father of Raham, who was the father of Jorkeam. Rekem was the father of Shammai. v45 Shammai was the father of Maon. Maon was the father of Beth Zur. v46 Caleb’s secondary wife was Ephah, and she was the mother of Haran, Moza, and Gazez. Haran was the father of Gazez. v47 Jahdai’s sons were Regem, Jotham, Geshan, Pelet, Ephah, and Shaaph. v48-49 Caleb had another secondary wife called Maacah. She was the mother of Sheber, Tirhanah, Shaaph, and Sheva. Shaaph was the father of Madmannah. Sheva was the father of Macbenah and Gibea. Caleb’s daughter was Acsah.

v50-51 These people were Caleb’s *descendants. Caleb’s son Hur was the first son of his mother Ephrathah. Hur’s sons were Shobal, Salma, and Hareph. Shobal was the father of Kiriath Jearim. Salma was the father of Bethlehem. And Hareph was the father of Beth Gader. v52 Shobal, the father of Kiriath Jearim, had other sons. Shobal’s *descendants were Haroeh and half the people called Manahathites. v53 And he was the *ancestor of the families from Kiriath Jearim. These families were called the Ithrites, Puthites, Shumathites, and Mishraites. The people called Zorathites and the Eshtaolites came from the Mishraite people. v54 These people were Salma’s *descendants: Bethlehem, the Netophathites, Atroth Beth Joab, half the Manahathites, and the Zorites. v55 Also, he was the *ancestor of those people who lived in Jabez. They were famous because they were clever people. These people were called the Tirathites, Shimeathites, and Sucathites. These families came from the people called Kenites. The father of the Kenites was Hammath. Hammath was the father of the people who lived in Recab.

The Manahathites were the people who lived in the city called Manahath. Half of them were *descendants of Shobal and the rest were *descendants of Salma. The Ithrites, the Puthites, the Shumathites and the Mishraites were families who lived in the town called Kiriath Jearim. The Zorathites were a family who lived in the town called Zorah. Zorah was in the area that belonged to the *tribe of Dan. The Eshtaolites lived in Eshtaol town that was in Judah. The Netophathites lived in Netophath town. Netophath was near Bethlehem in Judah. The Zorites is another name for the Zorathites. The Tirathites, the Shimeathites and the Sucathites were people that lived in the town called Jabez in Judah. The Kenites were a group of people who travelled round. But later they lived in Judah.

Verses 42-55 Here are lists of Caleb’s family. Many of these men gave their names to towns and cities in Judah. The Kenites were not *Israelites but here they have come into the *tribe of Judah (verse 55).

The sons of David – 1 Chronicles 3:1-9

v1 These sons of David were born in Hebron. The first son was Amnon, whose mother was Ahinoam from Jezreel. The second son was Daniel, whose mother was Abigail from Carmel. v2 The third son was Absalom, whose mother was Maacah. She was the daughter of Talmai, the king of Geshur. The 4th son was Adonijah, whose mother was Haggith. v3 The 5th son was Shephatiah, whose mother was Abital. The 6th son was Ithream, whose mother was Eglah. v4 These 6 sons of David were born to him in Hebron. David ruled in Hebron for 7 and a half years. David ruled in Jerusalem for 33 years. v5 These people were his children who were born in Jerusalem. They were Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, and Solomon. They were the 4 sons of David and Bathsheba. Bathsheba was Ammiel’s daughter. v6-8 David’s other 9 sons were Ibhar, Elishua, Eliphelet, Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama, Eliada, and Eliphelet. v9 They were all the sons of David. And he also had some sons by his secondary wives. David also had a daughter called Tamar.

Verses 1-4 The writer returns to the point at which he left the family of Ram (2:15). He shows the family of David. From that time, the family of David became the royal family of Judah. David had children in Hebron by 6 wives. These wives were Ahinoam, Abigail, Maacah, Haggith, Abital and Eglah.

The second son Daniel also had the name Chileab (2 Samuel 3:3). Abigail had been the wife of Nabal. As soon as Nabal died, David took her as his wife (1 Samuel chapter 25). Perhaps people were not sure whose child Chileab was. He could have been a son of Nabal but more likely, he was a son of David. The name ‘Daniel’ means ‘God is my judge’. Also, David gave him the name Chileab. The name ‘Chileab’ means ‘he who is like the father’. The boy was very much like David, so clearly he was David’s son.

David was king of Judah for 7 and a half years in Hebron. When he became king of all *Israel, he decided to live in Jerusalem. He ruled there for 33 years.

Verses 5-9 In Jerusalem, David had 13 more sons by his principal wives. He had other children by his secondary wives.

The author of Chronicles does not tell us about Bathsheba. She was the wife of Uriah. David had sex with Bathsheba and she was expecting his baby. So, he arranged for Uriah to die in battle. Then he married Bathsheba. But the baby died (2 Samuel chapter 11).

Solomon is the last of Bathsheba’s sons in this list. But he was the oldest of them.

In some copies of the Bible, Elishua is Elishama. If this is correct then there are two sons in this list called Elishama. And there were two sons called Eliphelet. It could be that the older one of each name had died. And the parents gave these names to later sons.

David had many daughters but only Tamar is in this list. Her mother was Maacah and her brother was Absalom. Her half-brother Amnon forced her to have sex with him. (A ‘half-brother’ means a brother if there is only one parent in common.) Because Amnon forced Tamar to have sex, Absalom killed Amnon (2 Samuel chapter 13).

The kings of Judah – 1 Chronicles 3:10-16

v10 Solomon’s son was Rehoboam. Rehoboam’s son was Abijah. Abijah’s son was Asa. Asa’s son was Jehoshaphat. v11 Jehoshaphat’s son was Jehoram. Jehoram’s son was Ahaziah. Ahaziah’s son was Joash. v12 Joash’s son was Amaziah. Amaziah’s son was Azariah. Azariah’s son was Jotham. v13 Jotham’s son was Ahaz. Ahaz’s son was Hezekiah. Hezekiah’s son was Manasseh. v14 Manasseh’s son was Amon, and Amon’s son was Josiah. v15 Josiah had 4 sons. His first son was Johanan. His second son was Jehoiakim. His third son was Zedekiah, and his 4th son was Shallum. v16 Jehoiakim was the father of Jehoiachin and Zedekiah.

Verse 10 Solomon ruled all *Israel. He became king in about 970 *BC and he ruled for 40 years. In the days of Rehoboam, 10 of the *tribes refused to have him as their king. Those 10 *tribes became the northern *kingdom. They took the name of *Israel. The *tribes of Judah and Benjamin were loyal to Rehoboam. This was called the *kingdom of Judah. Rehoboam ruled for 17 years. He was not a good king. Then his son Abijah ruled for about 3 years. The next king was Asa. He ruled for 41 years. For most of this time, Asa was a better king than his father was. But in the end, he refused to do what was right. When he died, his son Jehoshaphat ruled as king of Judah. He was a good king but even he was not completely loyal to the *LORD.

Verse 11 Jehoram was one of the worst of the kings of Judah. He married Athaliah, the daughter of King Ahab and Queen Jezebel who ruled *Israel. Jehoram turned away from God. He caused the people in Judah to *worship false gods. And he murdered all his brothers. He ruled for 4 years and then his son Ahaziah ruled for one year. Ahaziah did the same wicked things that his father had done. Athaliah the wife of Jehoram seized control and ruled for 6 years. She was a wicked woman as was her mother Jezebel. Athaliah tried to kill all the royal family but she did not find Ahaziah’s son Joash. His aunt took him to the priests and they hid him in the *temple. At first Joash did what was right. At that time, he served the *LORD. But after some years, Joash turned away from the *LORD and he served false gods. He ruled for 40 years.

Verse 12 Amaziah ruled for 29 years. His son Azariah ruled for 52 years. This man had two names. The other one is Uzziah. He was a strong king. But because of his *sin, he ended his days with a serious skin disease. His son Jotham took over the rule from Azariah. Jotham ruled for 16 years.

Verse 13 The next king was Ahaz and he ruled for 16 years. He was probably the worst king of Judah. He did not *worship the *LORD. He *worshipped the god Baal and other false gods. But his son Hezekiah was so different. He worked hard to bring the people back to the real God. He ruled for 28 years and then his son Manasseh ruled for 55 years. Manasseh was as bad as his grandfather was for most of his life. In the end, he did *repent of his wicked behaviour and he turned to the *LORD.

Verses 14-16 The next king Amon ruled only for a couple of years. His son Josiah was only 8 years old when he began to rule. He was loyal to the *LORD for all the 31 years that he ruled. He led the people to turn from false gods and to turn to the real God.

Josiah had 4 sons. The first son probably died before his father and so he did not rule. The 4th son, Shallum became king. His other name was Jehoahaz. He ruled a few months but the king of Egypt took him in *exile to Egypt. He died there. Then Jehoiakim ruled for about 11 years. But he was the servant of the king of Egypt for the first 4 years. Then he was a servant of the king of Babylon for three years. For the last 4 years, he was free but he was weak. His son Jehoiachin ruled for 100 days before the king of Babylon took him into *exile in Babylon.

The king of Babylon made Zedekiah (the third son of Josiah) king in Jerusalem. He ruled as a servant of the king of Babylon for 11 years.

Zedekiah the son of Jehoiakim was a nephew of King Zedekiah.

The royal family after the *exile – 1 Chronicles 3:17-24

v17-18 Jehoiachin was a prisoner in Babylon. His sons were Shealtiel, Malkiram, Pedaiah, Shenazzar, Jekamiah, Hoshama, and Nedabiah. v19 Pedaiah’s sons were Zerubbabel and Shimei. Zerubbabel’s sons were Meshullam and Hananiah. Their sister was Shelomith. v20 Zerubbabel had 5 other sons. They were Hashubah, Ohel, Berekiah, Hasadiah, and Jushab-Hesed. v21 The *descendants of Hananiah were Pelatiah, Jeshaiah and the sons of Rephaiah. The *descendants of Hananiah also included the sons of Arnan, of Obadiah, and of Shecaniah. v22 Shecaniah’s son was Shemaiah. Shemaiah’s sons were Hattush, Igal, Bariah, Neariah, and Shaphat. There were 6 in all. v23 Neariah had three sons. They were Elioenai, Hizkiah, and Azrikam. v24 Elioenai had 7 sons. They were Hodaviah, Eliashib, Pelaiah, Akkub, Johanan, Delaiah, and Anani.

Verse 17-24 Jehoiachin, whose other name was Jeconiah, went into *exile in 597 *BC. He was a prisoner of the king of Babylon. He had these 7 sons while he was in *exile. A receipt from Babylon for food with a date of 592 *BC shows 5 of these sons. The birth of the other two was probably after that date.

Zerubbabel was the son of Pedaiah. But in other parts of the Bible, he was the son of Shealtiel (Ezra 3:2 and 3:8; Haggai 1:1 and 1:12; Matthew 1:12; Luke 3:27). It may be that Shealtiel had no children. When he died his brother Pedaiah took Shealtiel’s widow. It was the custom for them to marry and to have a son for Shealtiel (see Deuteronomy 25:5-6). By this means, the family of Shealtiel could continue through this son Zerubbabel.

Meshullam’s other name was Abiud (Matthew 1:13). The rest of this passage shows the family during the *exile and afterwards.

Shemaiah had 6 sons but we have names for 5. The other one probably died as a young child.

Other families of Judah – 1 Chronicles 4:1-23

v1 Judah’s *descendants were Perez, Hezron, Carmi, Hur, and Shobal. v2 Reaiah was Shobal’s son. Reaiah was the father of Jahath. Jahath was the father of Ahumai and Lahad. They were called the Zorath *clan. v3-4 Hur was the oldest son in Ephrathah’s family. Hur was the leader of Bethlehem. His three sons were Etam, Penuel, and Ezer. Etam’s sons were Jezreel, Ishma, and Idbash. They had a sister called Hazzelelponi. Penuel was the father of Gedor, and Ezer was the father of Hushah.

v5 Tekoa’s father was Ashhur. Ashhur had two wives called Helah and Naarah. v6 The sons of Ashhur and Naarah were Ahuzzam, Hepher, Temeni, and Haahashtari. They were the *descendants of Naarah. v7-8 Helah’s sons were Zereth, Zohar, Ethnan, and Koz. Koz was the father of Anub, Hazzobebah, and the Aharhel *clan. Aharhel was the son of Harum.

v9 There was a man called Jabez. People respected him more than they respected his brothers. His mother gave him the name Jabez. She said, ‘I had much pain at his birth.’ That is why she gave him that name. v10 Jabez prayed to *Israel’s God. ‘Please do good things for me and extend my borders. Let your power be with me. Protect me from danger and let nothing hurt me.’ And God did what Jabez had asked.

v11 Kelub, Shuhah’s brother, was the father of Mehir. Mehir was the father of Eshton. v12 Eshton was the father of Beth Rapha, Paseah, and Tehinnah. Tehinnah was the father of Ir Nahash. These people were from Recah.

v13 The sons of Kenaz were Othniel and Seraiah. Othniel’s sons were Hathath and Meonothai. v14 Meonothai was the father of Ophrah. Seraiah was the father of Joab. Joab was the *ancestor of the people from Ge Harashim. The valley had that name because the people there were skilled workers. v15 Caleb was Jephunneh’s son. Caleb’s sons were Iru, Elah, and Naam. Elah’s son was Kenaz. v16 Jehallelel’s sons were Ziph, Ziphah, Tiria, and Asarel. v17-18 Ezrah’s sons were Jether, Mered, Epher, and Jalon. Mered married Bithiah, the daughter of the king of Egypt. The children of Mered and Bithiah were Miriam, Shammai, and Ishbah. Ishbah was the father of Eshtemoa. Mered also had a wife from Judah, who gave birth to Jered, Heber, and Jekuthiel. Jered became the father of Gedor. Heber became the father of Soco. And Jekuthiel became the father of Zanoah. v19 Hodiah’s wife was Naham’s sister. The sons of Hodiah’s wife were the fathers of Keilah the Garmite, and Eshtemoa the Maacathite. v20 Shimon’s sons were Amnon, Rinnah, Ben-Hanan, and Tilon. Ishi’s sons were Zoheth and Ben-Zoheth. v21-22 Shelah was one of Judah’s sons. Shelah’s sons were Er, Laadah, Jokim, Joash and Saraph; and the men in Cozeba. Er was the father of Lecah. Laadah was the father of Mareshah whose family worked with *linen at Bet Ashbea. Saraph ruled over Moab and Jashubi Lehem. (These details are from ancient records.) v23 These sons of Shelah made pots. They lived in Netaim and Gederah. They worked for the king.

In verse 19, we do not know the meaning of Garmite or of Maacathite. They were probably families that were *descendants of Keilah and Eshtemoa.

Verses 1-8 Hezron was a son of Perez (2:5). Carmi came from the family of Zerah. He was a son of Zimri and he was the father of Achar (2:7). Hur was a son of Caleb and Ephrathah (2:19). And Shobal was a son of Hur (2:50-51).

The list that follows is of the family from Shobal. They were called the Zorath *clan.

Verse 9-10 We do not know whose son Jabez was. His name is similar to the word for ‘pain’. His mother gave him that name because of the pain that she had at his birth. He was a good man and people respected him. *Jewish tradition says that he was a famous expert in the law. He was a sincere man who trusted in *Israel’s God.

We know nothing more about him but we do have this prayer. It shows us how he believed in God. He asked for God’s help. He needed God to act powerfully on his behalf. He asked God to protect him from all danger.

God gave to him what he had asked. God answers the prayers of those people who trust him.

Verses 11-12 Caleb (see verse 15) gave his daughter Achsah to be the wife of Othniel (Joshua 15:17). Later the *LORD used Othniel to save *Israel. He then became the leader of *Israel. He was the first judge of *Israel (Judges 3:9-10). (Although we call them ‘judges’, these men (and one woman) did not just have legal authority. The judges led *Israel before the nation had a king.)

Verse 14 There was a custom for people who had the same occupation to live in the same street or area. So, people with the same skills came together in the valley called Ge Harashim. They were probably workers in wood, iron and stone. The valley called Ge Harashim was near Jerusalem.

Verse 15 Caleb was Kenaz’s brother but Caleb was much older. Caleb was one of the men that Moses sent into the country called Canaan. They went to see what that country was like. All except Caleb and Joshua were afraid and gave a bad report of the country (Numbers chapters 13 to 14).

Verses 16-23 Mered’s wife Bithiah was a daughter of the king of Egypt. Her name means ‘daughter of Yahweh.’ ‘Yahweh’ is the same word as ‘the *LORD’; it is the name of *Israel’s God. This seems to show that she left the gods of Egypt in order to serve the real God.

This passage shows the custom for a family to continue the same occupation. The family of Mareshah made clothes from *linen. And the family of Saraph made pots.

The *tribe of Simeon – 1 Chronicles 4:24-43

v24 Simeon’s sons were Nemuel, Jamin, Jarib, Zerah, and Shaul. v25 Shaul’s son was Shallum. Shallum’s son was Mibsam. Mibsam’s son was Mishma. v26 Mishma’s son was Hammuel. Hammuel’s son was Zaccur. Zaccur’s son was Shimei. v27 Shimei had 16 sons and 6 daughters. But his brothers did not have many children. So, their *clan did not become as large as Judah’s *clan did. v28-31 Shimei’s children lived in these cities: Beersheba, Moladah, Hazar Shual, Bilhah, Ezem, Tolad, Bethuel, Hormah, Ziklag, Beth Marcaboth, Hazar Susim, Beth Biri, and Shaaraim. They lived in them until David became king. v32 The 5 villages near these cities were Etam, Ain, Rimmon, Token, and Ashan. v33 There were also other villages as far away as Baalath. This is where they lived. And they wrote the history of their *clan.

v34-38 The men in this list were leaders of their *clans. They were Meshobab, Jamlech, Joshah, Joel, Jehu, Elioenai, Jaakobah, Jeshohaiah, Asaiah, Adiel, Jesimiel, Benaiah, and Ziza. Joshah was a son of Amaziah. Jehu was a son of Joshibiah. Joshibiah was the son of Seraiah, and Seraiah was the son of Asiel. Ziza was the son of Shiphi, and Shiphi was the son of Allon. Allon was the son of Jedaiah and Jedaiah was the son of Shimri. Shimri was the son of Shemaiah. These families grew very large. v39 They travelled to the east side of the valley as far as Gedor. They looked for land where their sheep could find food. v40 They found good fields with plenty of grass. The land was open country, quiet and calm. The people who had lived there before were the *descendants of Ham.

v41 When Hezekiah was king in Judah these men came to Gedor. They fought against the *descendants of Ham and the Meunites who lived there. These men destroyed the homes and they killed all the people. Then they lived there because there was food for their sheep. v42 And some of them, 500 of Simeon’s *clan, went to *Mount Seir. Their leaders were Pelatiah, Neariah, Rephaiah, and Uzziel. They were Ishi’s sons. v43 They killed the last of the *descendants of Amalek and they have lived there ever since.

The Meunites (in verse 41) were a *clan who lived in the town called Gedor. Gedor was in the territory of Judah. The Meunites were not *Israelites. They were *descendants of Edom.

Verses 24-27 This passage (4:24-43) shows the early family of Simeon (verses 24-27). Then it records the towns where his *tribe lived (verses 28-31). And then it shows some of their later movements (verses 34-43).

The names here differ from the lists in earlier parts of the Bible (Genesis 46:10; Numbers 26:12). This is because some people had more than one name.

There was a count of the *tribes in the time of Moses (Numbers chapter 1). This count showed that there were 59 300 people in the *tribe of Simeon. At the same time there were 74 600 people in the *tribe of Judah. Some years later, there was another count of the *tribes (Numbers chapter 26). At this count the number of people in the *tribe of Simeon had reduced to 22 200. The *tribe of Judah had increased to 76 500 people. Simeon was the smallest *tribe in *Israel.

From then on, the rate of increase was less for Simeon than for Judah.

Verses 28-33 Over a long period of time, the *tribe of Judah took control of these cities. When David became king, all of these cities and villages were in Judah.

Verses 34-43 The *tribe of Simeon did not support the kings of Judah. The *kingdom divided during the rule of Rehoboam. Simeon was one of the 10 *tribes that formed the new country called *Israel. The *tribe of Simeon had to leave Judah. During the rule of Hezekiah, many of them went east to Gedor. There is some doubt about where Gedor was. But it seems likely that it was near the Jordan valley. The Meunites were a *clan of Edom.

About 500 people from the *tribe of Simeon went to *Mount Seir. *Mount Seir was across the Jordan river, in the country called Edom. Here they killed the last of the *descendants of Amalek.

The *tribe of Reuben – 1 Chronicles 5:1-10

v1 Reuben was *Israel’s first son by birth. But he had sex with one of his father’s wives. So, he lost the benefits of the first son. *Israel gave these benefits to the sons of Joseph. Joseph was a son of *Israel. Therefore, Reuben could not be in the list as the first among the sons of *Israel. v2 Judah became stronger than his brothers, and a leader came from his family. But Joseph’s sons received the benefits that belonged to the oldest son.

v3 Reuben was *Israel’s first son. Reuben’s sons were Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi. v4 These were the *descendants of Joel. Shemaiah was Joel’s son. Gog was Shemaiah’s son. Shimei was Gog’s son. v5 Micah was Shimei’s son. Reaiah was Micah’s son. Baal was Reaiah’s son. v6 Beerah was Baal’s son. Beerah was a leader of the *tribe of Reuben. Tiglath-Pileser king of Assyria made him a prisoner and took him away. v7-8 The family records show Beerah’s relatives by their *clans. Jeiel was the first, then Zechariah and Bela. (Bela was the son of Azaz. Azaz was the son of Shema, and Shema was the son of Joel.) They lived in the area from Aroer all the way to Nebo and Baal Meon. v9 To the east, they lived in the country up to the edge of the desert. The desert is to the west of the Euphrates river. They went this far because they had too many animals for the area called Gilead.

v10 When Saul was king, Bela’s people fought a war against the *Hagrite people. They defeated these people. Then they lived in the tents that had belonged to the *Hagrites in all the area east of Gilead.

Verses 1-2 When the *Israelites came back from *exile most of them were from the *tribe of Judah. But there were some people from other *tribes among them. So, the writer shows the *ancestors of all the *Israelites who had come back.

The *tribes of Reuben, Gad and half the *tribe of Manasseh lived to the east of the Jordan river. This chapter gives to us the lists of their families.

Reuben was the first son to be born to *Israel (that is, Jacob) by his wife Leah. There were special benefits for the oldest son. The oldest son would get twice as much as the other sons on the death of their father. And he would become the leader of the family. But Reuben lost those benefits because of his actions. He had sex with Bilhah who was a wife of his father (Genesis 35:22).

The benefits that should have been Reuben’s went to Joseph’s sons instead. Joseph was the first son of Rachel. She was *Israel’s favourite wife. Joseph had two sons: Ephraim and Manasseh. Each of these sons received the benefits of a *tribe. Joseph became the leader instead of Reuben. And later Joshua came from the *tribe of Ephraim. But *Israel *prophesied that the leader would come from Judah (Genesis 49:10).

The *tribe of Judah became the strongest of the *tribes. The leader of *Israel would come from the *tribe of Judah. David came from that *tribe. The family into which Jesus was born were from the *tribe of Judah. Both Mary and Joseph were *descendants of David. The *angel called the *Lord Jesus ‘the lion of the *tribe of Judah’ – Revelation 5:5.

Verse 3-10 The *LORD gave the name ‘*Israel’ to Jacob. In the Books of Chronicles, the writer always calls him *Israel (except in 1 Chronicles chapter 16). He had 12 sons, the first of which was Reuben. Reuben had 4 sons. There is an interval of some time here as Joel was not the son of one of those 4 sons.

In 733 *BC, King Tiglath-Pileser attacked the *tribe of Reuben. Beerah was the leader of the *tribe. Tiglath-Pileser took Beerah as an *exile to the country called Assyria. The army of Assyria took the whole area of the *tribes to the east of the river Jordan.

Aroer was a town on the river Arnon. Nebo was the name of both a city and a mountain in the same country. These places were on the east side of the river Jordan. The *tribes of Reuben and Gad lived there. But by 850 *BC, these areas were part of Moab and not *Israel (see Jeremiah 48:21-25).

The *Hagrites were *descendants of Hagar. Hagar was a maid of Sarah. Sarah gave her to Abraham and they had a son called Ishmael. The *Hagrites came from his family. The *Hagrites were a rich and large *clan. They lived in the area called the Syrian Desert with the river Euphrates as their western border. In the time of King Saul (1043-1011 *BC), the *tribe of Reuben defeated the *Hagrites.

The *tribe of Gad – 1 Chronicles 5:11-22

v11 The people from Gad’s *tribe lived near the *tribe of Reuben. They lived in the area called Bashan all the way to Salecah. v12 Joel was the main leader and Shapham was second to him. Janai and Shaphat were leaders in Bashan. v13 Their 7 relatives in their *clans were Michael, Meshullam, Sheba, Jorai, Jacan, Zia, and Eber. v14 Abihail was their *ancestor. Abihail was Huri’s son. Huri was Jaroah’s son. Jaroah was Gilead’s son. Gilead was Michael’s son. Michael was Jeshishai’s son. Jeshishai was Jahdo’s son, and Jahdo was the son of Buz. v15 Ahi was Abdiel’s son, and Abdiel was Guni’s son. Ahi was the leader of their *clan. v16 The *tribe of Gad lived in Gilead, Bashan and the small towns round it. They lived on the land in the plain called Sharon, all the way to the borders. v17 All these names were in the records of Gad’s family. They wrote the records when Jotham was king of Judah. That was when Jeroboam was king of *Israel.

v18 The *tribes of Reuben, Gad and half the *tribe of Manasseh had a large army. They had 44 760 skilled soldiers. The soldiers carried *shields, swords and bows. v19 They started a war against the *Hagrites and the people in Jetur, Naphish, and Nodab. v20 The army of Manasseh, Reuben, and Gad trusted in God. They prayed to God while they fought. And God helped them. They defeated the *Hagrites and those that were with them. v21 Then they took all the animals from their enemies. They took 50 000 camels, 250 000 sheep and 2000 *donkeys. Also they took 100 000 people as prisoners. v22 Many of their enemies died in battle because this was God’s war. Reuben, Gad, and half of the *tribe of Manasseh lived in the *Hagrites’ territory until the *exile.

Verses 11-17 The *tribe of Gad lived in the area called Bashan. They lived in Gilead, Bashan and the small towns near there. Their area included the plain called Sharon. The land in Bashan had good soil in which to plant crops. The plain called Sharon was a large flat area to the east of the river Jordan.

There were three areas called Sharon. One was near Caesarea and Joppa, which were on the west coast. The second one was between *Mount Tabor and the sea called Galilee. This third one had boundaries next to Gilead and Bashan.

These records of the family of Gad are from the time of Jotham and Jeroboam. Jotham was king in Judah from 750 to 731 *BC. Jeroboam II (the second) was king in *Israel from 793 to 753 *BC. There were two counts of the people. The first count was during the rule of Jeroboam. And the second count was during the rule of Jotham.

Verses 18-22 The two and a half *tribes that lived on the east side of the river Jordan had a large army. This probably refers to the time of Joshua. These two and a half *tribes fought against the local people and took their land. They trusted God to help them in battle. They prayed to God for success. The *LORD helped them because this was his plan for them.

The half *tribe of Manasseh to the east of the river – 1 Chronicles 5:23-26

v23 There were many people in the half *tribe of Manasseh. They lived in the area called Bashan all the way to Baal Hermon, Senir, and *Mount Hermon. v24 These men were the leaders of their *clans: Epher, Ishi, Eliel, Azriel, Jeremiah, Hodaviah, and Jahdiel. They were brave soldiers, famous men, and heads of their *clans.

v25 But the *clans *sinned against the God of their *ancestors. They turned away from God. And they *worshipped the gods of the people whom God had defeated in front of them. v26 So, *Israel’s God caused Pul, king of Assyria, to attack their territory. (Pul also had the name Tiglath-Pileser.) He took the people from the *tribes of Reuben, Gad, and the half *tribe of Manasseh into *exile. He brought them to Halah, Habor, Hara, and near the Gozan river. They are still there today.

Verses 23-26 Moses gave the places called Gilead and Bashan beyond the river Jordan to the half *tribe of Manasseh. They lived there and their land reached *Mount Hermon. Baal Hermon, Senir and *Mount Hermon are the names of three parts of the *Mount Hermon range of mountains.

The *tribes of *Israel beyond the river Jordan were not loyal to God. He had helped them to defeat the people who had lived there before them. But they turned from the *LORD their God to serve the false gods of those people. Because of this, God sent Pul to fight against them. So, the army of Assyria took these *tribes into *exile. There they remained and they were still there at the time of the writer of the Chronicles.

Pul was the private name of King Tiglath-Pileser the third. He ruled in Assyria from 745 to 727 *BC.

The *tribe of Levi – 1 Chronicles 6:1-81

The family of the chief priests – 1 Chronicles 6:1-15

v1 Levi’s sons were Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. v2 Kohath’s sons were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel. v3 Amram’s children were Aaron, Moses, and Miriam. Aaron’s sons were Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. v4 Eleazar was the father of Phinehas. Phinehas was the father of Abishua. v5 Abishua was the father of Bukki. Bukki was the father of Uzzi. v6 Uzzi was the father of Zerahiah. Zerahiah was the father of Meraioth. v7 Meraioth was the father of Amariah. Amariah was the father of Ahitub. v8 Ahitub was the father of Zadok. Zadok was the father of Ahimaaz. v9 Ahimaaz was the father of Azariah. Azariah was the father of Johanan. v10 Johanan was the father of Azariah. Azariah was a priest in the *temple that Solomon built in Jerusalem. v11 Azariah was the father of Amariah. Amariah was the father of Ahitub. v12 Ahitub was the father of Zadok. Zadok was the father of Shallum. v13 Shallum was the father of Hilkiah. Hilkiah was the father of Azariah. v14 Azariah was the father of Seraiah, and Seraiah was the father of Jehozadak. v15 Jehozadak went into *exile when the *LORD sent Judah and Jerusalem into *exile. The *LORD used Nebuchadnezzar to do this.

Verses 1-15 Levi had three sons Gershon, Kohath and Merari. Kohath had 4 sons including Amram. Amram was the father of Aaron, Moses and Miriam. All the priests came from the family of Aaron. Aaron was the first chief priest. His son Eleazar became the next chief priest. Then the role (job) of chief priest passed from father to son until the time of the *exile. But some of the chief priests came from the family of Ithamar who was a son of Aaron. So, this is not a complete list of the chief priests.

This is not a full list of the family of Levi. Levi went to Egypt with his father and brothers. His three sons were with him then. It was 400 years later that Moses led the *Israelites out of Egypt. Often in the Bible, the word ‘son’ means ‘from the family’. So, the ‘father’ could be an *ancestor rather than the actual father. Amram the father of Moses could not have been the son of Kohath.

The first two sons of Aaron were Nadab and Abihu. They died as a punishment. They did what was wrong. So the *LORD killed them (Leviticus 10:1-2). Because of this Eleazar, the third son, became the chief priest.

Zadok was the chief priest in the time of David (about 1000 *BC). The other chief priest at this time was Abiathar who belonged to the family of Ithamar.

Azariah son of Ahimaaz became the chief priest at the time of Solomon (about 970 *BC). Some time later Azariah the son of Johanan served in Solomon’s *temple.

Hilkiah discovered the book of the law that God had given to Moses (2 Kings 22:8). Because of this, King Josiah tried to turn the people back to their God.

Nebuchadnezzar ordered the death of Seraiah in Riblah town (2 Kings 25:18-21). But his son went into *exile. While in Babylon, Jehozadak had a son Jeshua. Jeshua came back to Jerusalem in about 538 *BC (Ezra 2:2). He was then the chief priest.

The three *clans of Levi – 1 Chronicles 6:16-30

v16 Levi’s sons were Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. v17 The names of Gershon’s sons were Libni and Shimei. v18 Kohath’s sons were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel. v19 Merari’s sons were Mahli and Mushi.

These are the names of the *ancestors of the *clans of the *Levites.

v20 Gershon’s son was Libni. Libni’s son was Jehath. Jehath’s son was Zimmah. v21 Zimmah’s son was Joah. Joah’s son was Iddo. Iddo’s son was Zerah. And Zerah’s son was Jeatherai.

v22 Kohath’s son was Amminadab. Amminadab’s son was Korah. Korah’s son was Assir. v23 Assir’s son was Elkanah. Elkanah’s son was Ebiasaph. Ebiasaph’s son was Assir. v24 Assir’s son was Tahath. Tahath’s son was Uriel. Uriel’s son was Uzziah, and Uzziah’s son was Shaul. v25 Elkanah’s sons were Amasai and Ahimoth. v26 Ahimoth’s son was Elkanah. Elkanah’s son was Zophai. Zophai’s son was Nahath. v27 Nahath’s son was Eliab. Eliab’s son was Jeroham. Jeroham’s son was Elkanah, and Elkanah’s son was Samuel. v28 Samuel’s first son was Joel and his second son was Abijah.

v29 Merari’s son was Mahli. Mahli’s son was Libni. Libni’s son was Shimei. Shimei’s son was Uzzah. v30 Uzzah’s son was Shimea. Shimea’s son was Haggiah, and Haggiah’s son was Asaiah.

Verses 16-30 The previous section showed the list of the priests. This section shows the rest of the family of Levi. Levi had three sons. Their sons were the *ancestors of the *clans of the *Levites. This list shows the families of Gershon, Kohath and Merari.

This list of names is not complete. Some names are not in this list and some are different in other lists.

The list of Kohath’s family is longer but it shows only one of his sons. Amminadab was another name for Izhar (Exodus 6:18). His son was Korah. Korah led a group of 250 men who opposed Moses. God punished Korah and the two men who were leaders with him (Numbers 16:1-33). The ground opened and it swallowed them. They went into their graves while they were still alive. And that was how they died. But God did not kill the sons of Korah.

The second Elkanah was the father of Samuel. Samuel was the *prophet who made Saul the first king of *Israel. Also, Samuel put oil on David’s head in order to appoint David king instead of Saul.

Joel and Abijah were the two sons of Samuel. Unlike their father, they were evil men. Because of this, the people wanted a king instead of them. God gave them their desire and Samuel made Saul their king.

The musicians – 1 Chronicles 6:31-48

v31 David brought God’s *ark into the *LORD’s house. Then he chose some men to be responsible for the music in that house. v32 They served the *LORD as they made music at the holy tent. This tent was where the *LORD met with the priests. They used that tent until Solomon built the *LORD’s *temple in Jerusalem. They followed the rules for their work.

v33 These are the musicians and their sons: from Kohath’s family there was Heman the singer. Heman was Joel’s son. Joel was Samuel’s son. v34 Samuel was Elkanah’s son. Elkanah was Jeroham’s son. Jeroham was Eliel’s son. Eliel was Toah’s son. v35 Toah was Zuph’s son. Zuph was Elkanah’s son. Elkanah was Mahath’s son. Mahath was Amasai’s son. v36 Amasai was Elkanah’s son. Elkanah was Joel’s son. Joel was Azariah’s son. Azariah was Zephaniah’s son. v37 Zephaniah was Tahath’s son. Tahath was Assir’s son. Assir was Ebiasaph’s son. Ebiasaph was Korah’s son. v38 Korah was Izhar’s son. Izhar was Kohath’s son. Kohath was Levi’s son. Levi was *Israel’s son.

v39 Heman’s brother (partner) Asaph stood on his right hand side. Asaph was Berekiah’s son. Berekiah was Shimea’s son. v40 Shimea was Michael’s son. Michael was Baaseiah’s son. Baaseiah was Malkijah’s son. v41 Malkijah was Ethni’s son. Ethni was Zerah’s son. Zerah was Adaiah’s son. v42 Adaiah was Ethan’s son. Ethan was Zimmah’s son. Zimmah was Shimei’s son. v43 Shimei was Jahath’s son. Jahath was Gershon’s son, and Gershon was Levi’s son.

v44 On the left of Heman and Asaph stood their companions, who were from Merari’s *clan. In this group of men was Ethan son of Kishi. Kishi was Abdi’s son. Abdi was Malluch’s son. v45 Malluch was Hashabiah’s son. Hashabiah was Amaziah’s son. Amaziah was Hilkiah’s son. v46 Hilkiah was Amzi’s son. Amzi was Bani’s son. Bani was Shemer’s son. v47 Shemer was Mahli’s son. Mahli was Mushi’s son. Mushi was Merari’s son, and Merari was Levi’s son.

v48 The rest of the *Levites had special tasks to do for the holy tent, the house of God.

Verses 31-48 King David brought God’s *ark from the house of Obed-Edom (2 Samuel 6:12). He brought it up to Jerusalem. He put it in a special tent. That tent was the *LORD’s house until Solomon built the *temple. It was the place where people would come to *worship. They brought their *sacrifices there and the priests burned them on the *altar outside. But only the priests would go inside the holy tent or the *temple building.

God’s *ark was a wooden box. Gold covered the wood on both the inside and the outside of the box (Exodus 25:10). In it, there was the book of the law that God gave to Moses. Also in the box were Aaron’s stick and a gold jar with the bread that God gave to *Israel in the desert (Hebrews 9:4). The *ark was in the most holy place in the tent and later in the most holy place in the *temple. Only the chief priest would enter that room. And he would only enter it on one special day each year.

Then David chose the men who would lead the music at the tent. They were responsible for the music in the *worship of God. He chose some men to play instruments of music. He chose other men to praise the *LORD in song.

The three chief singers were Heman, Asaph and Ethan. Heman was a grandson of Samuel. Asaph was not a brother of Heman because he was not from the same family. But they both came from the same *ancestor Levi. The term ‘brother’ here means a partner as a singer (verse 39). Later in this book, Ethan has the name of Jeduthun. Their names appear in the titles of some Psalms (see Psalms 73 to 89).

The rest of the *Levites also served in and round the *LORD’s house. Some of them guarded the gates. Some of them took care of the equipment of the tent. Other *Levites helped the priests. They killed the animals and prepared them for the priests.

Aaron’s *descendants – 1 Chronicles 6:49-53

v49 Aaron and his *descendants gave the gifts to God on the *altar for *burnt *sacrifices. And they burned the *incense on the *altar for *incense. They gave the *sacrifices to God so that he would remove the *Israelites’ *sins. They alone were responsible for the work in the most holy place. They obeyed all the orders that God’s servant Moses had given to them. v50 These men were Aaron’s *descendants. Eleazar was Aaron’s son. Phinehas was Eleazar’s son. Abishua was Phinehas’ son. v51 Bukki was Abishua’s son. Uzzi was Bukki’s son. Zerahiah was Uzzi’s son. v52 Meraioth was Zerahiah’s son. Amariah was Meraioth’s son. Ahitub was Amariah’s son. v53 Zadok was Ahitub’s son, and Ahimaaz was Zadok’s son.

Verses 49-53 Aaron and his *descendants were the chief priests. The people brought to them the daily *sacrifices and their gifts. Then the priests took these *sacrifices and gifts and they burned them on the *altar. Also, they burned *incense each night and each morning on the *altar for *incense. These *sacrifices were for the *sins of the people.

The chief priest went into the most holy place once each year. He went in to meet with God. God can forgive *sin only when something has died. So the chief priest took the blood of an animal, which he had killed as a special *sacrifice. Nobody else could go into the most holy place.

The rules for this one day in the year are in Leviticus chapter 16. When Aaron died, the role (job) of chief priest went to his son Eleazar.

This list continues until the time of David and Solomon. During their rule, Zadok and then Ahimaaz were chief priests. Only the chief priest from the family of Zadok could go into the most holy place.

The cities of the *Levites – 1 Chronicles 6:54-81

v54 These are the places where Aaron’s *descendants lived. The Kohath *clan received the first share of the land. v55 They had the city called Hebron in Judah and the land round it. v56 But Caleb son of Jephunneh had the fields round the city and the villages near Hebron. v57-58 So the *descendants of Aaron lived in Hebron. Hebron was one of the cities of safety. Also, they lived in other towns. And they had the land round them. These towns were Libnah, Jattir, Eshtemoa, Hilen, Debir, v59 Ashan, Juttah, and Beth Shemesh. v60 Also, the *tribe of Benjamin gave to them towns with the surrounding land. These towns were Gibeon, Geba, Alemeth, and Anathoth. This made 13 towns for all their families to live in.

v61 The *clans of half Manasseh gave 10 towns to the rest of the *clan of Kohath. They threw stones to choose the towns. v62 The *tribes of Issachar, Asher, Naphtali, and the part of Manasseh in Bashan gave 13 towns to the Gershon *clan. v63 The *tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Zebulun gave 12 towns to the Merari *clan. They threw stones to choose the towns. v64 So the *Israelites gave these towns with the surrounding land to the *Levites. v65 The *tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin gave certain towns. They threw stones to choose these towns.

v66 The *tribe of Ephraim gave towns and land to some of the *clan of Kohath. v67-69 They gave to the *clan of Kohath the cities of safety. One of these was Shechem with its land in the hill country of Ephraim. The other cities were Gezer with its land, Jokmeam, Beth Horon, Aijalon, and Gath Rimmon. v70 The half *tribe of Manasseh gave to the Kohath *clan the towns called Aner and Bileam with the surrounding land.

v71 The other half of the *tribe of Manasseh gave towns to the Gershon *clan. These towns were Golan in Bashan and Ashtaroth with the surrounding land. v72-73 The *tribe of Issachar gave towns to the Gershon *clan. These towns were Kedesh, Daberath, Ramoth, and Anem with the surrounding land. v74-75 The *tribe of Asher gave towns to the Gershon *clan. These towns were Mashal, Abdon, Hukok, and Rehob with the surrounding land. v76 The *tribe of Naphtali gave towns to the Gershon *clan. These towns were Kedesh in Galilee, Hammon, and Kiriathaim with the surrounding land.

v77 The *tribe of Zebulun gave towns to the Merari *clan, that is, to the rest of the *Levites. These towns were Jokneam, Kartah, Rimmono, and Tabor with the surrounding land. v78-79 The *tribe of Reuben gave towns to the Merari *clan. These towns were Bezer in the desert, Jahzah, Kedemoth, and Mephaath with the surrounding land. The *tribe of Reuben lived east of the Jordan river, across from Jericho. v80-81 The *tribe of Gad gave towns to the Merari *clan. These towns were Ramoth in Gilead, Mahanaim, Heshbon, and Jazer with the surrounding land.

Verses 54-81 The *Levite families of Kohath, Gershon and Merari received 48 towns. As Jacob had said (Genesis 49:7), the *Levites did not have their own region. They lived among the other *tribes.

There were 6 cities of safety. These were Hebron, Shechem, Bezer, Ramoth, Golan and Kedesh. When a person killed someone, the nearest relative of the dead person had a duty to kill him. But if the person did not intend to kill (Joshua chapter 20), he could go to the city of safety. He would live there until a judge declared him guilty or innocent.

The *tribe of Issachar – 1 Chronicles 7:1-5

v1 Issachar had 4 sons: Tola, Puah, Jashub, and Shimron. v2 Tola’s sons were Uzzi, Rephaiah, Jeriel, Jahmai, Ibsam, and Samuel. They were leaders of their *clans. In the family of Tola there were 22 600 brave soldiers when David was king. v3 Uzzi’s son was Izrahiah. Izrahiah’s sons were Michael, Obadiah, Joel, and Isshiah. All 5 of them were leaders. v4 Their family history shows that they had many wives and children. So, they had 36 000 men ready to serve in the army. v5 The records of the *clans of Issachar show that they had 87 000 soldiers.

Verses 1-5 King David sent Joab to count the *Israelites (2 Samuel chapter 24). It may be that the numbers in this chapter came from that count. At that time there were 22 600 soldiers from the family of Tola.

Izrahiah and his 4 sons had many wives and children. The *clans of these 5 men had 36 000 men ready to serve as soldiers. These men were in addition to the 22 600 who seem to be from the other sons of Tola.

The whole *tribe of Issachar had 87 000 soldiers.

The *tribe of Benjamin – 1 Chronicles 7:6-12

v6 Benjamin had three sons Bela, Beker, and Jediael. v7 Bela had 5 sons: Ezbon, Uzzi, Uzziel, Jerimoth, and Iri. They were leaders of their *clans. Their family history shows that they had 22 034 soldiers. v8 Beker’s sons were Zemirah, Joash, Eliezer, Elioenai, Omri, Jeremoth, Abijah, Anathoth, and Alemeth. They all were Beker’s sons. v9 Their family history shows these *clan leaders and 22 200 soldiers. v10 Jediael’s son was Bilhan. Bilhan’s sons were Jeush, Benjamin, Ehud, Kenaanah, Zethan, Tarshish, and Ahishahar. v11 All these sons of Jediael were leaders of their *clans. They had 17 200 men ready to serve in the army. v12 Shuppim and Huppim were *descendants of Ir. The Hushim were *descendants of Aher.

Verses 6-12 Benjamin had more sons than these 3 sons. There are 10 sons in the list in Genesis chapter 46. It seems that by the time of David there were *clans from just these 3 sons.

The *clans of the 5 sons of Bela had 22 034 soldiers. The *clans of the sons of Beker had 22 200 soldiers. The *clans of the family of Jediael had 17 200 soldiers.

Ir could be a short form for the name of Bela’s son Iri. Aher could be a short form of the name of Bela’s younger brother Aharah.

The *tribe of Naphtali – 1 Chronicles 7:13

v13 Naphtali’s sons were Jahziel, Guni, Jezer, and Shillem. They were Bilhah’s grandsons.

Verse 13 Bilhah was Naphtali’s mother. So his sons were grandsons to Bilhah.

The western half *tribe of Manasseh – 1 Chronicles 7:14-19

v14 These are Manasseh’s *descendants. Manasseh had a slave woman from the country called Aram, who was the mother of Asriel and Makir. Makir was Gilead’s father. v15 Makir took a wife from among the family of Huppim and Shuppim. His sister’s name was Maacah. Zelophehad was a *descendant of Manasseh. Zelophehad had only daughters. v16 Makir’s wife Maacah had a son whom she named Peresh. Peresh’s brother was Sheresh. Sheresh’s sons were Ulam and Rakem. v17 Ulam’s son was Bedan. These were the sons of Gilead, who was the son of Makir. Makir was Manasseh’s son. v18 Makir’s sister Hammoleketh gave birth to Ishhod, Abiezer, and Mahlah. v19 The sons of Shemida were Ahian, Shechem, Likhi, and Aniam.

Verses 14-19 The text is not clear. Makir was the first son of Manasseh. Makir was the father of Gilead. The slave woman was the mother of Asriel. But Asriel was a son of Gilead (Numbers 26:30). So it seems that there were two men with the name of Asriel. One of them was a son of Manasseh. The other one was a son of Gilead.

Zelophehad was the son of Hepher. Hepher was a son of Gilead. Zelophehad had 5 daughters and no sons. Their father died. So, the daughters asked that they could have his property. Because of this, Moses asked the *LORD about it. The *LORD told Moses to change the law. Where there are no sons the property can pass to the daughters (Numbers 27:1-11).

The *tribe of Ephraim – 1 Chronicles 7:20-29

v20 These are the names of Ephraim’s *descendants. Ephraim’s son was Shuthelah. Shuthelah’s son was Bered. Bered’s son was Tahath. Tahath’s son was Eleadah. Eleadah’s son was Tahath. v21 Tahath’s son was Zabad. Zabad’s son was Shuthelah. Ezer and Elead were also sons of Ephraim. They went to Gath to steal cows and sheep. But some men who grew up in that city killed them. v22 Their father Ephraim cried many days for them. And his family came to comfort him. v23 Then he and his wife had another son. Ephraim gave him the name Beriah because of the *disaster that had happened in his family. v24 Beriah’s daughter was Sheerah. She built Lower and Upper Beth Horon as well as Uzzen Sheerah. v25 Rephah was Beriah’s son. Resheph was Rephah’s son. Telah was Resheph’s son. Tahan was Telah’s son. v26 Ladan was Tahan’s son. Ammihud was Ladan’s son. Elishama was Ammihud’s son. v27 Nun was Elishama’s son, and Joshua was the son of Nun.

v28 Ephraim’s *descendants lived in Bethel and the villages near it. They lived in Naaran to the east. And they lived in Gezer and the villages near it to the west. Also, they lived in Shechem and the villages near it. These villages went all the way to Ayyah and its villages. v29 Along the borders of Manasseh’s land were 4 towns. These towns were Beth Shan, Taanach, Megiddo, and Dor, and the villages near them. The *descendants of Joseph son of *Israel lived in these towns.

Verses 20-29 Ezer and Elead went to Gath. They were sons of Ephraim. They went to steal cows and sheep. But the local men caught them and they killed Ezer and Elead.

Ephraim was very sad because of the loss of these two sons. He and his wife had another son. They called him Beriah. That name means ‘in evil’. They gave him this name because of the evil things that had happened in the family.

At the time of Joshua, Sheerah built the cities in verse 24. If she built the cities, then ‘daughter’ here means a *descendant. If she was the actual daughter of Beriah, her *descendants built the cities.

There was about 400 years between the time of Joseph and the time of Joshua. Joshua was born about 1500 *BC. Joshua was the son of Nun. Joshua became the leader of the *Israelites after Moses’ death. (See Deuteronomy 31:1-8 and the Book of Joshua.)

The *tribe of Asher – 1 Chronicles 7:30-40

v30 Asher’s sons were Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, and Beriah. Their sister was Serah. v31 Beriah’s sons were Heber and Malkiel. Malkiel was Birzaith’s father. v32 Heber was the father of Japhlet, Shomer, Hotham, and their sister Shua. v33 Japhlet’s sons were Pasach, Bimhal, and Ashvath. They were Japhlet’s children. v34 Japhlet’s brother was Shomer. Shomer’s sons were Rohgah, Hubbah, and Aram. v35 Shomer’s brother was Hotham. Hotham’s sons were Zophah, Imna, Shelesh, and Amal. v36-37 Zophah’s sons were Suah, Harnepher, Shual, Beri, Imrah, Bezer, Hod, Shamma, Shilshah, Ithran, and Beera. v38 Jether’s sons were Jephunneh, Pispah, and Ara. v39 Ulla’s sons were Arah, Hanniel, and Rizia.

v40 All these men were *descendants of Asher. They were leaders of their families. They were powerful soldiers and great leaders. Their family records show that they had 26 000 men ready to serve in the army.

Verses 30-40 The sons and grandsons of Asher were born before the *Israelites went to Egypt. This list of the family of Asher ends with Ulla’s sons. The list only shows the *clans that came from Beriah (verse 31).

In the time of David, this *tribe had 26 000 soldiers ready to serve in the army.

The writer ends the family lists of the *tribes with Asher. He does not tell us about the families of Dan and Zebulun.

Benjamin to Saul – 1 Chronicles 8:1-40

The *tribe of Benjamin – 1 Chronicles 8:1-28

v1 Benjamin was the father of Bela, his first son. Ashbel was his second son and Aharah was his third son. v2 Nohah was his 4th son, and Rapha was his 5th son. v3-5 Bela’s sons were Addar, Gera, Abihud, Abishua, Naaman, Ahoah, Gera, Shephuphan, and Huram.

v6 These men were the *descendants of Ehud and they were the leaders of their families in Geba. They had to leave Geba and go into *exile to Manahath. v7 Ehud’s *descendants were Naaman, Ahijah, and Gera. Gera forced them to leave. He was the father of Uzza and Ahihud. v8-11 And Shaharaim and his wife Hushim had sons called Abitub and Elpaal. In Moab, Shaharaim divorced his wives Hushim and Baara. Shaharaim and his wife Hodesh had 7 sons. These sons were Jobab, Zibia, Mesha, Malcam, Jeuz, Sakia, and Mirmah. They were leaders of their families. v12-13 Elpaal’s sons were Eber, Misham, Shemed, Beriah, and Shema. Shemed built the towns called Ono and Lod and the villages round them. Beriah and Shema were leaders of the families who lived in Aijalon. They forced out from Gath the people who lived there. v14-16 Beriah’s sons were Ahio, Shashak, Jeremoth, Zebadiah, Arad, Eder, Michael, Ishpah, and Joha. v17-18 Elpaal’s sons were Zebadiah, Meshullam, Hizki, Heber, Ishmerai, Izliah, and Jobab. v19-21 Shimei’s sons were Jakim, Zicri, Zabdi, Elienai, Zillethai, Eliel, Adaiah, Beraiah, and Shimrath. v22-25 Shashak’s sons were Ishpan, Eber, Eliel, Abdon, Zicri, Hanan, Hananiah, Elam, Anthothijah, Iphdeiah, and Penuel. v26-27 Jeroham’s sons were Shamsherai, Shehariah, Athaliah, Jaareshiah, Elijah, and Zicri.

v28 The family records show that all these men were leaders of their families. They lived in Jerusalem.

Verses 1-28 This chapter has more detail than the previous list of Benjamin’s family (7:6-12). It leads to the history section of the book. That history begins with the family of Saul. He was the first king of *Israel and he was a *descendant of Benjamin (verse 33).

Between verses 5 and 6, there was about 500 years. Ehud was the son of Gera. This Gera is not the same as in verse 5. Ehud was a judge (leader) in *Israel who rescued *Israel from the rule of Moab (Judges 3:12-30).

The family of Ehud was in Geba town. Then they all moved from Geba to Manahath as Gera directed them. Manahath was in the territory of Judah. This Gera was a son of Ehud.

Shaharaim (verses 8-11) was either a brother or a son of Ahihud. He went to the country called Moab. He probably went there because there was little food in *Israel at that time. He had sons by two wives.

The towns called Ono and Lod (verses 12-13) existed well before the time of Joshua. It seems that they were in a poor state at this time. So, Shemed built them again. The writer mentions them here because people went to live there after the *exile (Ezra 2:33).

In verse 27, one of Jeroham’s sons is Elijah. A *Jewish tradition says that this is Elijah the *prophet. But we cannot be sure. The Bible simply says that the *prophet Elijah was from Tishbe in Gilead. It does not record his *tribe.

The heads of these families lived in Jerusalem. This may refer to those leaders of Benjamin’s *tribe who came back after the *exile.

The family of Saul – 1 Chronicles 8:29-40

v29 Jeiel lived in Gibeon town, where he was the leader. His wife was Maacah. v30-32 Jeiel’s first son was Abdon. His other sons were Zur, Kish, Baal, Ner, Nadab, Gedor, Ahio, Zeker, and Mikloth. Mikloth was the father of Shimeah. These sons also lived near their relatives in Jerusalem. v33 Ner was the father of Kish. Kish was the father of Saul. And Saul was the father of Jonathan, Malki-Shua, Abinadab, and Esh-Baal. v34 Jonathan’s son was Merib-Baal, who was the father of Micah. v35 Micah’s sons were Pithon, Melech, Tarea, and Ahaz. v36 Ahaz was the father of Jehoaddah. Jehoaddah was the father of Alemeth, Azmaveth, and Zimri. Zimri was the father of Moza. v37 Moza was the father of Binea. Raphah was Binea’s son. Eleasah was Raphah’s son, and Azel was Eleasah’s son. v38 Azel had 6 sons. These sons were Azrikam, Bokeru, Ishmael, Sheariah, Obadiah, and Hanan. All these were Azel’s sons. v39 Azel’s brother was Eshek. Eshek’s first son was Ulam. His second son was Jeush, and Eliphelet was his third son. v40 Ulam’s sons were brave soldiers. They were skilled with bows and arrows. They had many sons and grandsons, 150 of them in all. All these men were Benjamin’s *descendants.

Verses 29-40 From the family of Jeiel there came Ner. (The word ‘son’ often means ‘*descendant’ rather than ‘the son of the father’). Ner was the father of Kish. And Kish was the father of Saul. Saul, the son of Kish, became the first king of *Israel (1 Samuel chapters 9 and 10). Saul was king from 1043 *BC to 1011 *BC. Ner was also the father of Abner. So, Abner was an uncle of Saul. He became the leader of Saul’s army (1 Samuel 14:50).

One of Saul’s sons was Esh-Baal. Before the *worship of the false god called Baal began in *Israel, the word was an ordinary word for God. And people often used that word in the names of their children. But afterwards, people began to *worship the false god called Baal. So people who were loyal to God did not want to use those old names. They did not even want to mention the word ‘baal’. So, they changed ‘baal’ to ‘bosheth’. The word ‘bosheth’ means ‘shame’. Then Esh-Baal became Ish-Bosheth. A son of Jonathan, Merib-baal became Mephibosheth.

Mephibosheth was 5 years old when Saul and Jonathan died. That was in 1011 *BC. King David was kind to Mephibosheth because he had made a promise to Jonathan (1 Samuel 20:15-17). This list of Mephibosheth’s family continues until about the time of the *exile in 586 *BC.

People in Jerusalem – 1 Chronicles 9:1-34

The people who lived in Jerusalem – 1 Chronicles 9:1-9

v1 Lists of all the *Israelites were in their family records. And those records were in the book of *Israel’s kings.

The people from Judah went as prisoners into *exile in Babylon. They were in *exile because they were not loyal to God. v2 The first people who came back from *exile were *Israelites, priests, *Levites, and *temple servants. They lived in their own property in their own towns.

v3-4 Some people from the *tribes of Judah, Benjamin, Ephraim, and Manasseh lived in Jerusalem. This is a list of those people.

There was Uthai son of Ammihud. Ammihud was Omri’s son. Omri was Imri’s son. Imri was Bani’s son. Bani was a *descendant of Perez, and Perez was Judah’s son. v5 From the *clan of Shilon there were Asaiah and his sons. Asaiah was the oldest son in his family. v6 From the *clan of Zerah there were Jeuel and other relatives of Zerah. There were 690 of them in all.

v7 From the *tribe of Benjamin there was Sallu son of Meshullam. Meshullam was Hodaviah’s son, and Hodaviah was Hassenuah’s son. v8 There was also Ibneiah son of Jeroham and Elah son of Uzzi. Uzzi was Micri’s son. And there was Meshullam son of Shephatiah. Shephatiah was Reuel’s son, and Reuel was Ibnijah’s son. v9 The family record of Benjamin shows 956 people. All these men were leaders of their families.

Verse 1 Since the start of the nation called *Israel, the *Israelites kept public records. In these records, there were registers of all the people. The names of all *Israelites were there with the *tribe and family to which they belonged. These records were in the books of the kings of *Israel and Judah.

The writer was able to see to some of these records. The *exiles had managed to save them through the entire period of their *exile. The family lists in this book came from these and other records. The *exiles from Judah kept such records as they could during their time in Babylon. The writer used these records to bring some of the family lists up to his own time.

The people were coming back to their country. These lists would cause them to remember the *worship in the *temple. The lists would remind them of the tasks that certain people had in the *temple. So these lists would help the *temple and its *worship to begin again after the *exile.

Judah (that is, the *tribes of Judah and Benjamin) went into *exile in Babylon. They had to go there because they had not been loyal to the *LORD their God.

Verse 2 After the *exile, some of the *Israelites came back to their own country. The first to come back and to live in the country were *Israelites. Most of these *Israelites were from the *tribes of Judah and Benjamin but there were also some people from the other *tribes. Among these *Israelites, there were priests, *Levites, and *temple servants.

The *temple servants were people who worked for the *Levites in the *temple. Many of these would have been from Gibeon town. They were not *Israelites. They had pretended to be from a distant country. Joshua believed them, so he did not kill them. When Joshua discovered the truth, he made them slaves to do the heavy work for the house of God (Joshua chapter 9). David appointed more people to be *temple servants (Ezra 8:20).

These people, who returned first, were able to live in their own property. They went to live in the towns from which their families had gone into *exile.

Verses 3-9 The armies of the countries called Media and Persia defeated Babylon in 539 *BC. In 538 *BC, King Cyrus of Persia decided that the *exiles from Judah could return to Judah. He told them to build again the *temple of the *LORD in Jerusalem (Ezra 1:1-4). So, people from Judah, Benjamin, Ephraim, and Manasseh went to live in Jerusalem.

The list here shows only the major *clan leaders. These leaders are from the *tribes of Judah and Benjamin. Uthai, Asaiah and Jeuel were all from the *tribe of Judah. From this *tribe, there were 690 people in Jerusalem. Sallu, Ibneiah, Elah and Meshullam were all from the *tribe of Benjamin. There were 956 people from the *tribe of Benjamin in the city.

The families of the priests – 1 Chronicles 9:10-13

v10-11 From the priests there were Jedaiah, Jehoiarib, Jakin, and Azariah. Azariah was a son of Hilkiah. Hilkiah was Meshullam’s son. Meshullam was Zadok’s son. Zadok was Meraioth’s son. Meraioth was Ahitub’s son. Azariah was the chief officer of God’s *temple. v12 Also there was Adaiah son of Jeroham. Jeroham was Pashhur’s son, and Pashhur was Malkijah’s son. And there was Maasai son of Adiel. Adiel was Jahzerah’s son. Jahzerah was Meshullam’s son. Meshullam was Meshillemith’s son, and Meshillemith was Immer’s son. v13 There were 1760 priests. They were heads of their families. They were skilled men able to serve in God’s *temple.

Verses 10-13 Azariah was the ruler of the *LORD’s house. Nehemiah calls him Seraiah (Nehemiah 11:11). He was next in authority to Jeshua the chief priest.

The families of the *Levites – 1 Chronicles 9:14-34

v14 From the *Levites, there was Shemaiah son of Hasshub. Hasshub was Azrikam’s son, and Azrikam was Hashabiah’s son. Hashabiah was from the family of Merari. v15 There were also Bakbakkar, Heresh, Galal, and Mattaniah. Mattaniah was a son of Mica. Mica was Zicri’s son, and Zicri was Asaph’s son. v16 Also there was Obadiah son of Shemaiah. Shemaiah was Galal’s son, and Galal was Jeduthun’s son. And there was Berekiah son of Asa. Asa was the son of Elkanah. Elkanah lived in Netophath town and its villages.

v17 From the guards of the *temple gates, there were Shallum, Akkub, Talmon and Ahiman. Their relatives were with them. Shallum was their leader. v18 These guards from the *tribe of Levi still stand next to the King’s Gate. That gate is on the east side of the city. v19 Shallum was Kore’s son. Kore was Ebiasaph’s son, and Ebiasaph was Korah’s son. Shallum and his relatives from the family of Korah were guards of the *temple gates. That was their work. Their *ancestors had also been guards of the entrance to the *LORD’s tent. v20 In the past Phinehas was in command of the guards at the entrance to the holy tent. He was Eleazar’s son. The *LORD was with Phinehas. v21 Zechariah son of Meshelemiah was the guard at the entrance to the *LORD’s tent.

v22 In all, there were 212 guards. The family records show their names in the villages where they live. David and the *prophet Samuel chose these men as guards because they were responsible men. v23 These men and their *descendants had to guard the gates of the *LORD’s house. The *LORD’s house was the holy tent. v24 The guards were on the 4 sides of the *LORD’s house. They were on the east, west, south and north sides. v25 Their relatives lived in their villages. They had to come and to help the guards at certain times. Each time they came, they helped the guards for 7 days. v26 The 4 chief guards were responsible for the rooms and the valuable things in God’s house. All these men were *Levites. v27 By night, they guarded God’s house. Every morning they would open it. They were responsible for the key that opened its gates.

v28 Some of the guards looked after the equipment for use in the *temple. They counted these objects when people brought them in. And they counted these objects when people took them out. v29 Some of the guards had control of the furniture and equipment in the holy place. Also, some of them had control of the flour, wine, oil, *incense, and *spices. v30 But some of the priests mixed the *spices. v31 Mattithiah was a *Levite. He was the first son of Shallum, who was from the family of Korah. Mattithiah was the baker who made the flat bread. v32 Some of the Kohath family prepared the special bread. Each *Sabbath day they put this bread on the table.

v33 Some of the *Levite families were musicians in the *temple. The leaders of these families stayed in the rooms of the *temple. Since they were on duty day and night, they did not do other work in the *temple. v34 These men were the leaders of those *Levite families. Their names were in their family records, and they lived in Jerusalem.

Verses 14-16 Levi had three sons. These sons were Gershon, Kohath and Merari. Shemaiah was a *descendant of Merari who was the third son of Levi. Mattaniah was a *descendant of Gershon who was the first son of Levi. Mattaniah came from the family of Asaph. Asaph was one of David’s chief musicians. Obadiah was a *descendant of Merari. He came from the family of Jeduthun. Jeduthun was also one of David’s chief musicians. Berekiah was a *descendant of Kohath who was Levi’s second son. Netophath town and its villages were the places where the *Levite singers lived.

Verses 17-27 The *temple guards were from the family of Korah. Korah was from the family of Kohath. And Kohath was Levi’s second son. Shallum was the leader of the *temple guards who came back to Jerusalem from Babylon. Shallum, Akkub, Talmon and Ahiman stood next to the King’s Gate. This was the most important gate into the *temple. The king would leave his palace and he would enter the *temple through this gate. At the time of the return from *exile, there was no king. So, they kept that gate closed. They hoped for the time when there would be a king in *Israel again.

Phinehas was the grandson of Aaron. He controlled the men who guarded the tent in the desert. These guards were the sons of Korah.

Zechariah and his son, Meshelemiah, were the guards at the entrance of the *LORD’s tent in the time of David (26:8-11). Samuel and David chose responsible men from the family of Korah to be guards. Samuel was himself from the family of Korah. In all, there were 212 guards.

The job of the guard passed from father to son. They worked in teams at each of the gates. The gates were on the 4 sides of the tent. When Solomon built the *temple, it replaced the tent. The guards were then responsible for the *temple.

There were 24 guards on duty at all times (26:17-18). Each team would work 24 hours a day for one week. Groups of 24 guards would be on duty for, perhaps, 8 or 12 hours at a time. So there would be 72 or 48 guards in the team for the week. Then a different team would take their place for the next week.

The 4 chief guards controlled the teams. Also, they were responsible for the valuable things in the *temple. These men would make sure that the guards shut the gates for the night. They would stay near to God’s house and they would open the gates in the morning.

Verses 28-32 The guards had other duties as well. But they could not mix the *spices. That was a job for the priests to do.

Each week the priests put 12 loaves of special bread on a table in the holy place. They took away the old bread. The *Levites prepared the special bread for the priests. Mattithiah was the baker who made that bread.

Verse 33-34 Other *Levites were musicians. They had no other duties but to lead the music in the *temple. When they were on duty, the leaders of the *Levites lived in rooms in the *temple area. When they were not on duty, these leaders lived in Jerusalem.

Saul’s family – 1 Chronicles 9:35-44

v35 Jeiel lived in Gibeon town, where he was the leader. His wife was Maacah. v36-37 Jeiel’s first son was Abdon. His other sons were Zur, Kish, Baal, Ner, Nadab, Gedor, Ahio, Zechariah, and Mikloth. v38 Mikloth was Shimeam’s father. They lived near their relatives in Jerusalem. v39 Ner was Kish’s father. Kish was Saul’s father. Saul was the father of Jonathan, Malki-Shua, Abinadab, and Esh-Baal. v40 Jonathan’s son was Merib-Baal, who was the father of Micah. v41 Micah’s sons were Pithon, Melech, Tahrea, and Ahaz. v42 Ahaz was Jadah’s father. Jadah was the father of Alemeth, Azmaveth, and Zimri. Zimri was Moza’s father. v43 Moza was Binea’s father. Rephaiah was Binea’s son. Eleasah was Rephaiah’s son, and Azel was Eleasah’s son. v44 Azel had 6 sons: Azrikam, Bokeru, Ishmael, Sheariah, Obadiah, and Hanan. They were Azel’s sons.

Verses 35-44 The rest of the chapter is about the family of Saul, who was *Israel’s first king. He was the son of Kish. Jonathan’s son was Merib-Baal. Merib-Baal was another name for Mephibosheth. This list shows the family of Saul until about the time of the *exile in Babylon.

The purpose of this list is to mention the story of Saul briefly, in order to introduce David. David’s rule as king is the main subject for the rest of 1 Chronicles.

Word List

altar ~ the special table where the priests burned animals or other gifts to God (or to false gods).

ancestors ~ people in history from whom your family has come.

angel ~ one of God’s special servants from heaven. God made angels to serve him and to take his messages.

ark ~ the ark of the *LORD or the ark of God; the Bible also calls it ‘the ark of God’s special promise’. It was a wooden box with gold all over the outside and inside. It had two models of gold *cherubim on the top (see Exodus 25:10-22). The *Israelites kept the ark in the most holy place; first in the *LORD’s tent and then in the *temple.

BC ~ years before Christ was born.

bulls ~ the male farm animals of which the females are cows.

burnt (sacrifice) ~ a *sacrifice that the priests burned completely on the *altar.

cherubim ~ special *angels who were in the most holy place of the *temple.

clan ~ part of a *tribe, a group of families.

cymbals ~ a kind of musical instrument. A person hits two cymbals together to make a loud crash.

daric ~ a coin whose weight was about a quarter of an ounce (about 7 grams).

descendant ~ a future member of a family or nation.

disaster ~ when something very bad happens.

donkey ~ an animal that is like a small horse. It can carry people or goods.

exile ~ When people have to live in a foreign country, they are in exile. Such a person is called an exile.

grape ~ a fruit which people use to make wine.

Hagrites ~ people from various *tribes in the desert. They were *descendants of Hagar, the mother of Ishmael.

Hebrew ~ the language of *Israel. ‘Hebrews’ is another name for the *Israelites.

incense ~ a substance that gives a sweet smell when it burns. The priests burned it when they praised God in the *temple.

Israel ~ Israel is the special name that God gave to Jacob. His *descendants were called Israel after him. So, Israel is the nation whose *ancestors were Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. The country in which they live is called Israel.

Israelites ~ the people whose *ancestors are Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.

Jebusites ~ people who lived in the city called Jebus. David defeated them and he changed the name of the city to Jerusalem.

Jews ~ another name for the *Israelites.

Jewish ~ a word that describes a *Jew or anything that belongs to a *Jew.

kingdom ~ the place or territory where a king rules and the people over whom a king rules.

Levite ~ a person who belongs to the *tribe of Levi.

linen ~ a type of material that is like cotton. Linen is a very good quality material.

lord ~ someone with authority such as the king.

Lord ~ a title for God, to show that he is over all people and things.

LORD ~ ‘LORD’ is the special name that God gave to himself. The name probably means: ‘He is always God.’ This name has a relationship with God’s special promises to his people.

Mount ~ mountain.

Old Testament ~ the first part of the Bible. The Old Testament contains sacred books of law, history, wisdom, poetry and *prophecy that the writers wrote before Jesus’ birth.

ox ~ a large and strong animal that farmers used to pull the plough. See also *bull.

oxen ~ plural of *ox.

Philistines ~ a group of people who lived to the south-west of Judah. They were a nation that frequently fought against the *Israelites.

prophecy ~ a message from God; a gift of the Holy Spirit.

prophesy ~ to speak a *prophecy.

prophet ~ a person who speaks for God. He can sometimes say what will happen in the future.

prostitute ~ a woman who offers her body for sex in order to earn money. There are also male prostitutes.

repent ~ to change the mind; to turn away from *sin and turn to God.

Sabbath ~ The Sabbath was the 7th day of the week (Saturday) which God told the *Israelites to keep as a special day. They did not work on that day. They used it for rest and for *worship.

sacrifice ~ The priests killed a special animal when people offered it as a gift to God. They burned all or part of it on an *altar. That animal was called a sacrifice. They offered a sacrifice when they asked God to forgive *sins. When Jesus died, he was the perfect sacrifice for our *sins. ‘To sacrifice’ means ‘to give a sacrifice’.

scrolls ~ books in the form of long pieces of material which the reader rolls up.

shield ~ Soldiers carried shields in their hands for protection in battle. They were like covers or boards. They protected the body from swords or other *weapons.

sin ~ Sin is the wrong things that we do. To sin is to do wrong, bad or evil deeds and not to obey God. People are called sinners because they are guilty of sin.

sling ~ The sling was a *weapon. It was a bit of leather with two strings. The soldier would put a smooth stone in the leather bit. Then he would swing it round above his head by the strings. Finally, he would let the stone fly out of the sling.

spears ~ long sticks with sharp ends that soldiers used as *weapons during battles.

spice ~ a vegetable substance with a powerful flavour or a strong smell. People use spices in food or *incense.

temple ~ a special building for the *worship of God. Or, a building for the *worship of false gods. The *Jews had a temple in Jerusalem for the *worship of the real God.

tribe ~ The *Israelites originally consisted of the 12 large families of the sons of Jacob. These families became the 12 tribes of *Israel.

weapon ~ a tool of war that soldiers use in attack or defence during a battle, for example: swords, *spears and *slings.

worship ~ acts to show honour to God (or to a false god). When people praise and thank God.

Book List

Albert Barnes’ Notes on the Bible

John Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible

Adam Clarke’s Commentary on the Bible

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown Commentary

Martin J Selman, Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries

H G M Williamson, The New Century Bible Commentary

J Barton Payne, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary

William Wilson, Old Testament Word Studies

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

Dr William Smith, Concise Dictionary of the Bible




© 2009, Wycliffe Associates (UK)

This publication is in EasyEnglish Level B (2800 words).

April 2009

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